Rules-As-Written, you can't catch an arrow that is aimed at another
Your quoted text is pretty explicit about it, you have to be the target and you have to get hit in order to use the feature, that means if the attacker misses, you can't use Deflect Missiles.
On the Readied Action question, it wouldn't work either. Two things:
Deflect Missiles is a ...
No. There is no handed-ness in D&D, so characters do not have a dominant and weak hand. (Unless the player narrates them as such)
In addition, even when wielding two weapons, you don't have disadvantage on the second one you attack with (referred to as the off-hand, but either hand can be your off-hand depending on which weapon you swing first), rather ...
The Monk class is one of the weakest in the game. It has extremely few powerful or useful features, and those that are useful tend to have extremely tight limits on how often they can be used. The only major exceptions, namely their Unarmed Strikes, AC Bonus, Flurry of Blows, Evasion, and their bonus feats, all happen in the first two levels. There is almost ...
Yes, because Slow Fall is just a figurative name
As clarified in the Sage Advice Compendium, in response to a question about mage armor:
Some spells and class features have figurative, not literal, names. The text of the spell or class feature explains what it does.
Slow Fall explains that:
you can use your reaction when you fall to reduce any ...
You need to read the book
Your original post shows that you're new to the game (which is fine), but your issues with your class are due mostly to you not understanding the class's purpose and progression. Reading the section about monks in the PHB (it's only a few pages), will answer many of your questions and should give you an idea of what to expect.
Everyone is proficient with their own unarmed strikes
In the errata for the Player's Handbook, the Unarmed Strike entry was removed from the weapon table. However, the rules on Unarmed Strikes in the combat section now say that every character is proficient with unarmed strikes (emphasis added):
Instead of using a weapon to make a melee weapon attack, ...
If we only think about dealing damage, you are correct that killing one target is better than damaging many targets. Spreading your damage out between four attackers causes the party to take damage from all four for the entire combat. Focusing on each one in turn will cause the damage to drop off throughout the fight.
The only real exception to this would ...
Deflect Missiles is a reaction:
Starting at 3rd level, you can use your reaction to deflect or catch the missile when you are hit by a ranged weapon attack.
You can only use one reaction per round.
From the PHB, page 190:
When you take a reaction, you can't take another one until the start of your next turn.
So he can do it once between each of his ...
Strictly by Rules as Written and Intended, no.
By RAW no what you ruled doesn't work. Let's look at the important passages from the skills involved.
You can use Dexterity instead of Strength for the attack and damage rolls of your unarmed strikes and monk weapons.
The Attack must use a Finesse or a ranged weapon.
According to the description of reactions (PHB 190):
When you take a reaction, you can't take another one until the start
of your next turn.
Both use your reaction. As you only have 1 reaction per round, you must choose which of the two you would like to activate.
The Gauntlets aren't armor
Every magic item has a category they belong to:
Each magic item belongs to a category: armor, potions, rings, rods, scrolls, staffs, wands, weapons, or wondrous items.
Unless an armor’s description says otherwise, armor must be worn for its magic to function.
Wondrous items ...
You must use your reaction as you fall. After taking damage, you are no longer falling.
The trigger is specific:
you can use your reaction when you fall
You take falling damage when you hit the ground, and at that point you fell, you are not falling anymore. Therefore, a Monk spends its reaction before taking damage.
Narratively, it doesn't make much ...
The answer to your question is No, using versatile weapons with two hands does not disqualify them as monk weapons.
But not because of any reason that made you ask the question, because your whole question is wrong as it's clear from your question you haven't understood the paragraph in question.
The paragraph in question on pg. 78, PHB says (emphasis mine)...
"Magical Effects" and "multiverse" are keywords / themes to resolve this
Short Answer: Ki creates magical effects that are subject to Antimagic Field's effects.
In the boxed section covering the Weave (PHB p. 205) ki is left out. Since that PHB chapter is about "spells and spell casting" that makes organizational sense.
There is a clue ...
From Sean K Reynolds (After Emailing Him)
At the time the Pathfinder Alpha was being written, I wasn’t an employee at Paizo. I’m not even listed in the credits.
The Beta went to print about a month before I started working at Paizo. I’m not listed in the credits for that book, either.
When they were working on the final, ...
You choose before you know the damage. Hitting and dealing damage are separate steps — if the ability was supposed to give the choice when damage was being resolved, it would say something like "… when you are damaged by a ranged weapon attack." Instead, it says "when you are hit". So when you're hit, but before damage is rolled (or revealed), ...
No, because the weapon isn't using Strength any more.
Down in the Making An Attack section (PHB p193-194) we get this...
Ability Modifier. The ability modifier used for a melee weapon attack is Strength, and the ability modifier used for a ranged weapon attack is Dexterity. Weapons that have the finesse or thrown property break this rule.
ALL melee ...
So, first up - anyone can use any weapon. Proficiency merely determines whether you can add your proficiency bonus to your attack rolls.
Proficiency with a weapon allows you to add your
proficiency bonus to the attack roll for any attack you
make with that weapon. If you make an attack roll using
a weapon with which you lack proficiency, you do not ...
In short, yes.
There are a few things that make monk on par with the other melee fighting classes. I'll list a few of them here:
Dex to attack and damage
Monks can apply dex to attacks and damage automatically at level one.
Monks are the only class that gets 2 attacks per round at level 1, and they keep up with Fighter attacks per round ...
You need not be your class(es)
You are playing a character, who has a certain skill set. That character may self-identify as a rogue, and then may recognize a distinct switch from being a rogue to following the way of the monk. Those are options.
They are not the only options. Consider Miko Miyazaki:
Elan: So Miko, did you take levels in the old samurai ...
No, a monk can't use their Martial Arts feature with improvised weapons. Monk weapons are:
short swords and any simple melee weapons that don’t have the two-handed or heavy property.
Unfortunately, simple melee weapons are weapons that are in the "Simple Melee Weapons" category on the weapons table, and improvised weapons aren't present there. (Otherwise ...
In many cases, an improvised weapon is similar to an actual weapon and can be treated as such. For example, a table leg is akin to a club. At the DM’s option, a character proficient with a weapon can use a similar object as if it were that weapon ...
This is the crux of the matter, If the weapon can be treated as a qualifying simple weapon, then the DM may ...
You should have made a total of 3 attack rolls - 1 for the staff, and 1 for each unarmed strike in the Flurry of Blows.
Every time you make an attack, you should make an attack roll. This is, actually, the definition of an attack:
If there’s ever any question whether something you’re
doing counts as an attack, the rule is simple: if you’re
making an ...
The Animated Shield says that it
protects you as if you were wielding it.
This strongly implies that you aren't wielding it.
The Monk's Unarmored Defense feature works
while you are wearing no armor and not wielding a shield.
So the use of an Animated Shield shouldn't interfere.
As for proficiency, the only requirement for using an Animated Shield ...
You do not land prone when you reduce the damage to zero. You've basically answered your own question with this PHB quote (page 183, "Falling"):
The creature lands prone, unless it avoids taking damage from the fall.
You did not take falling damage, so you do not land prone.
No, the monk need not see the incoming missile.
...you can use your reaction to deflect or catch the missile when you are hit by a ranged attack. (PHB p.78, emphasis mine)
As you say, nothing to indicate the monk must see the incoming missile. Call it spidey-sense, or hearing it whistle through the last intervening foot, the monk can at the moment of ...
The Monk feature says that you can use the bonus action Unarmed strike after you use the Attack action with a Monk weapon or Unarmed strike. Shocking Grasp requires the Cast a Spell action, which does not qualify.
Essentially, sixth level is the end of Monk as an independent class.
Monk's biggest and most pervasive problem is that it can't play well with itself. More than any other class in the game, a Monk's features demand exclusivity of use, even to the point where you can't use other Monk features if you want to use certain ones. Looking at the SRD entry for Monk ...
There are conditions that prevent characters from taking actions altogether (stunned, unconscious, dying, etc). This prevents free actions, but a "No Action" power could still be used. Also note that most powers that enhance your initiative are No Action because you are using them before combat technically begins.
For example, a Deva could use the Memory of ...