You can store a Teleportation Circle in a Glyph of Warding. You must choose the Teleportation Circle's destination when casting it, and the Teleportation Circle will transport anyone currently standing on the Glyph when it activates and stay open for 6 seconds after opening.
The question is whether Teleportation Circle fits the criteria of Glyph of Warding's Spell Store effect, which really depends on if Teleportation Circle targets "an area".
So, Teleportation Circle has an area of effect shape of a cylinder with a height of 0 (or arbitrarily close enough to it, thus making it a circle), and where the point of origin is an object, namely the entire area of the circle (or the ground encapsulated by the perimeter of the circle).
For a cylinder area of effect, the circle must be on the ground, and for Teleportation Circle, the circle must also be on the ground. In addition, both spells make specific reference to an area 10-foot in diameter. Since Teleportation Circle's circle of 10 feet in diameter is an area of a surface no larger than 10 feet in diameter, the storing of a Teleportation Circle is legal, per a strictly literal reading of the rules, and would function per the second interpretation of the rules as presented in the question.
Seemingly there is an issue. The range of Teleportation Circle is 10 feet, but if the point of origin is the entire circle, as I have claimed, then we could expect the effective range to be 100 feet instead, or at the very least a 10 foot circle anywhere within 100 feet. However, per Cylinder, "A cylinder’s point of origin is included in the cylinder’s area of effect." So there is no contradiction for a spell's origin point to be the entire range of the effect.
Per Targets, PHB page 204 (emphasis mine),
A typical spell requires you to pick one or more targets to be affected by the spell’s magic. A spell's description tells you whether the spell targets ... a point of origin for an area of effect (described below).
Per Area of Effect (emphasis mine),
A spell’s description specifies its area of effect, which typically has one of five different shapes: cone, cube, cylinder, line, or sphere. Every area of effect has a point of origin, a location from which the spell’s energy erupts. The rules for each shape specify how you position its point of origin. Typically, a point of origin is a point in space, but some spells have an area whose origin is ... an object.
Per Cylinder (emphasis mine),
A cylinder's point of origin is the center of a circle of a particular radius, as given in the spell description. The circle must either be on the ground or at the height of the spell effect. The energy in a cylinder expands in straight lines from the point of origin to the perimeter of the circle, forming the base of the cylinder. The spell’s effect then shoots up from the base or down from the top, to a distance equal to the height of the cylinder. A cylinder’s point of origin is included in the cylinder’s area of effect.
Per Glyph of Warding spell description (emphasis mine),
When you cast this spell, you inscribe a glyph that harms other creatures, either upon a surface (such as a table or a section of floor or wall) ... to conceal the glyph. If you choose a surface, the glyph can cover an area of the surface no larger than 10 feet in diameter.
You can store a prepared spell of 3rd level or lower in the glyph by casting it as part of creating the glyph. The spell must target a single creature or an area. The spell being stored has no immediate effect when cast in this way. When the glyph is triggered, the stored spell is cast. If the spell has a target, it targets the creature that triggered the glyph. If the spell affects an area, the area is centered on that creature. If the spell summons hostile creatures or creates harmful objects or traps, they appear as close as possible to the intruder and attack it. If the spell requires concentration, it lasts until the end of its full duration.
Per Teleportation Circle spell description (emphasis mine),
As you cast the spell, you draw a 10-foot-diameter circle on the ground inscribed with sigils that link your location to a permanent teleportation circle of your choice whose sigil sequence you know and that is on the same plane of existence as you. A shimmering portal opens within the circle you drew and remains open until the end of your next turn. Any creature that enters the portal instantly appears within 5 feet of the destination circle or in the nearest unoccupied space if that space is occupied.