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The rules is written as

A ranged weapon attack automatically misses a target beyond the weapon’s normal range. Even against a target within normal range, the attack roll has disadvantage unless the weapon is a crossbow, a net, or a weapon that is thrown like a javelin (including a spear, trident, or dart).

My question is if this part:

A ranged weapon attack automatically misses a target beyond the weapon’s normal range.

Is a complete clause on its own independent of the next sentences, or is a part of the later sentences. Do all ranged weapon attacks miss past their normal range, or only weapons that aren't listed as exceptions?

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The sentence,

A ranged weapon attack automatically misses a target beyond the weapon's normal range,

is meant to be taken by itself.

The next sentences tell you that making a ranged attack weapon underwater is done at disadvantage unless you have one of the specified weapons. You still have to be within the normal attack range to make this attack roll because otherwise it automatically misses.

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Those are two different mechanics

The specific weapons listed are for determining if disadvantage is on the attack. For weapons that aren't on the list, that isn't disadvantage from range but from being underwater.

The ranges remain the ranges and if a ranged weapon attack is in the 'long' range part, then it automatically misses, regardless of whether or not it's a weapon listed (like the crossbow.)

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