In 5E, there are only a handful of sources for magic items that are official.
The Dungeon Master's Guide, and the Appendices of published Adventures.
After looking through all of these, the answer to your question is: No. The Blinkback Belt does not have an equivalent in D&D 5e
There are a few magic items that have a similar effect though (in that they can be thrown multiple times).
From the DMG:
- The Dwarven Thrower (Very Rare Warhammer) can be thrown, and
immediately flies back to your hand afterwards.
- Whelm is a legendary sentient Warhammer (only usable by a dwarf) that
has the same feature
From Princes of the Apocalypse
- A Storm Boomerang returns to your hand if you miss (but not if you hit)
And, for 5E...that's it.