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The Circle of Spores druid has the class feature Symbiotic Entity, which lets you expend a use of Wild Shape to gain a number of benefits, one of which is (GGtR, p. 27):

Your melee weapon attacks deal an extra 1d6 poison damage to any target they hit.

Would spells, such as the thorn whip cantrip, gain the extra damage from this feature?

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Symbiotic Entity only applies to melee weapon attacks.

Symbiotic Entity says:

Your melee weapon attacks deal an extra 1d6 poison damage to any target they hit.

So it depends on the particular spell. The given use case, thorn whip (PHB, pg. 282) says:

Make a melee spell attack against the target.

This is a melee spell attack, not a melee weapon attack, so Symbiotic Entity would not apply. A spell would have to specify you are making a melee weapon attack for it to benefit from Symbiotic Entity.

For example, a druid using shillelagh (PHB, pg. 275) would benefit from Symbiotic Entity:

The wood of a club or quarterstaff you are holding is imbued with nature's power. For the duration, you can use your spellcasting ability instead of Strength for the attack and damage rolls of melee attacks using that weapon, and the weapon's damage die becomes a d8. The weapon also becomes magical, if it isn't already. The spell ends if you cast it again or if you let go of the weapon.

Since you would be making your attacks with a melee weapon (a club or quarterstaff), Symbiotic Entity would boost the damage of those weapon attacks.

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No; melee weapon attacks are distinct from melee spell attacks.

Per this answer, you can see that the PHB (p. 195) distinguishes between melee attacks using weapons and melee attacks using spells:

Used in hand-to-hand combat, a melee attack allows you to attack a foe within your reach. A melee attack typically uses a handheld weapon such as a sword, a warhammer, or an axe. A typical monster makes a melee attack when it strikes with its claws, horns, teeth, tentacles, or other body part. A few spells also involve making a melee attack.

We can also look to this December 2017 tweet by Jeremy Crawford on the matter, which, while not an official ruling, is still informative:

An attack is either a weapon attack or a spell attack. It is never both, unless a rule makes an explicit exception.

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    \$\begingroup\$ Also note that unarmed strikes (even powered up with Martial Arts) aren't weapon attacks. The game is pretty specific that "weapon" means exactly that, and not in the "my hands are registered lethal weapons" sense. \$\endgroup\$ – Darth Pseudonym Sep 10 '20 at 14:21
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    \$\begingroup\$ @DarthPseudonym: Not quite. Unarmed strikes are still considered melee weapon attacks... They're just not made with weapons. \$\endgroup\$ – V2Blast Oct 11 '20 at 8:09

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