Only if you take three levels in Sorcerer and choose the Quickened Spell metamagic or six levels in Cleric and follow the Order Domain
As the other answers correctly note, in general this cannot be done. Actions are actions, and bonus actions are bonus actions. You can only take a bonus action if a spell, feat, feature, or similar explicitly says you can-- otherwise, you don't have a bonus action to use.
There are a couple of exceptions, in this case the PHB Sorcerer class and the Order Domain Cleric (Guildmaster's Guide to Ravnica) (h/t to Medix2 for the Order Cleric example).
Sorcerers have a special resource called sorcery points, and at level 3, sorcerers can take two metamagic options. One of these, Quickened Spell, allows the sorcerer to spend two sorcery points to cast a spell that normally requires an action to cast and instead lets them cast it as a bonus action.
The Order Cleric gains a feature at level 6, Embodiment of the Law, which allows them to cast an enchantment spell of first level or higher, and which normally has a casting time of one action, as a bonus action instead.